Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

Preface

xii

 

About the Author

xvi

Chapter 1

Introduction

2

 

Definition and Scope of Forensic Science

4

 

History and Development of Forensic Science

5

 

Organization of a Crime Laboratory

10

 

Services of the Crime Laboratory

13

 

Functions of the Forensic Scientist

16

 

Other Forensic Science Services

21

 

Chapter Summary

25

 

Review Questions

26

 

Further References

28

 

Case Study: Detection of Curare in the Jascalevich Murder Trial

29

Chapter 2

The Crime Scene

36

 

Processing the Crime Scene

38

 

Legal Considerations at the Crime Scene

55

 

Chapter Summary

56

 

Review Questions

57

 

Further References

58

 

Case Study: The Enrique Camarena Case: A Forensic Nightmare

59

Chapter 3

Physical Evidence

68

 

Common Types of Physical Evidence

70

 

The Significance of Physical Evidence

72

 

Forensic Databases

79

 

Crime Scene Reconstruction

83

 

Chapter Summary

84

 

Review Questions

86

 

Further References

86

 

Case Study: Fiber Evidence and the Wayne William Trial

87

Chapter 4

Physical Properties: Glass and Soil

98

 

The Metric System

100

 

Physical Properties

102

 

Comparing Glass Fragments

109

 

Glass Fractures

116

 

Collection and Preservation of Glass Evidence

118

 

Forensic Characteristics of Soil

119

 

Collection and Preservation of Soil Evidence

122

 

Chapter Summary

123

 

Review Questions

124

 

Further References

125

Chapter 5

Organic Analysis

126

 

Elements and Compounds

128

 

Selecting an Analytical Technique

132

 

Chromatography

133

 

Spectrophotometry

144

 

Mass Spectrometry

150

 

Chapter Summary

154

 

Review Questions

155

 

Further References

157

Chapter 6

Inorganic Analysis

158

 

Evidence in the Assassination of President Kennedy

162

 

The Emission Spectrum of Elements

164

 

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

167

 

The Origin of Emission and Absorption Spectra

169

 

Neutron Activation Analysis

171

 

X-ray Diffraction

174

 

Chapter Summary

175

 

Review Questions

176

 

Further References

177

Chapter 7

The Microscope

178

 

The Compound Microscope

182

 

The Comparison Microscope

184

 

The Stereoscopic Microscope

186

 

The Polarizing Microscope

188

 

The Microspectrophotometer

189

 

The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

192

 

Chapter Summary

195

 

Review Questions

196

 

Further References

197

 

Case Study: Microscopic Trace EvidenceThe Overlooked Clue

198

Chapter 8

Hairs, Fibers, and Paint

206

 

Morphology of Hair

208

 

Identification and Comparison of Hair

212

 

Collection and Preservation of Hair Evidence

218

 

Types of Fibers

219

 

Identification and Comparison of Manufactured Fibers

224

 

Collection and Preservation of Fiber Evidence

231

 

Forensic Examination of Paint

232

 

Collection and Preservation of Paint Evidence

239

 

Chapter Summary

242

 

Review Questions

243

 

Further References

245

Chapter 9

Drugs

246

 

Drug Dependence

248

 

Narcotic Drugs

251

 

Hallucinogens

254

 

Depressants

259

 

Stimulants

260

 

Club Drugs

263

 

Anabolic Steroids

264

 

Drug-Control Laws

265

 

Drug Identification

268

 

Collection and Preservation of Drug Evidence

273

 

Chapter Summary

274

 

Review Questions

275

 

Further References

277

Chapter 10

Forensic Toxicology

278

 

Toxicology of Alcohol

281

 

The Role of the Toxicologist

297

 

Techniques Used in Toxicology

298

 

The Significance of Toxicological Findings

302

 

The Drug Recognition Expert

303

 

Chapter Summary

306

 

Review Questions

307

 

Further References

309

Chapter 11

Forensic Aspects of Arson and Explosion Investigations

310

 

The Chemistry of Fire

312

 

Searching the Fire Scene

318

 

Collection and Preservation of Arson Evidence

321

 

Analysis of Flammable Residues

323

 

Types of Explosives

327

 

Collection and Analysis of Explosives

332

 

Chapter Summary

340

 

Review Questions

341

 

Further References

342

Chapter 12

Forensic Serology

344

 

The Nature of Blood

347

 

Immunoassay Techniques

350

 

Forensic Characterization of Bloodstains

352

 

Stain Patterns of Blood

359

 

Principles of Heredity

364

 

Forensic Characterization of Semen

367

 

Collection of Rape Evidence

371

 

Chapter Summary

376

 

Review Questions

377

 

Further References

379

Chapter 13

DNA: The Indispensable Forensic Science Tool

380

 

What is DNA?

382

 

DNA at Work

385

 

Replication of DNA

387

 

Recombinant DNA: Cutting and Splicing DNA

388

 

DNA Typing

390

 

Mitochondrial DNA

403

 

The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)

410

 

Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for DNA Analysis

411

 

Chapter Summary

417

 

Review Questions

418

 

Further References

420

 

Case Study: The Forensic Community’s Response to September 11

421

Chapter 14

Fingerprints

426

 

History of Fingerprinting

428

 

Fundamental Principles of Fingerprints

430

 

Classification of Fingerprints

435

 

Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems

436

 

Methods of Detecting Fingerprints

440

 

Preservation of Developed Prints

451

 

Digital Imaging for Fingerprint Enhancement

452

 

Chapter Summary

454

 

Review Questions

455

 

Further References

457

Chapter 15

Firearms, Tool Marks, and Other Impressions

458

 

Bullet Comparisons

460

 

Cartridge Cases

467

 

Automated Firearms Search Systems

468

 

Gunpowder Residues

471

 

Primer Residues on the Hands

475

 

Serial Number Restoration

478

 

Collection and Preservation of Firearms Evidence

479

 

Tool Marks

481

 

Other Impressions

484

 

Chapter Summary

492

 

Review Questions

493

 

Further References

494

Chapter 16

Document and Voice Examination

496

 

Handwriting Comparisons

498

 

Collection of Handwriting Exemplars

501

 

Typescript Comparisons

502

 

Photocopier, Printer, and Fax Examination

504

 

Alterations, Erasures, and Obliterations

505

 

Other Document Problems

510

 

Voice Examination

515

 

Chapter Summary

519

 

Review Questions

520

 

Further References

521

Chapter 17

Computer Forensics   Andrew W. Donofrio

522

 

From Input to Output: How does the Computer Work?

525

 

Putting it All together

529

 

How Data is Stored

530

 

Processing the Electronic Crime Scene

532

 

Evidentiary Data

536

 

Chapter Summary

544

 

Review Questions

544

 

Further References

545

 

Case Study 1: Computer Forensic Analysis Answers the Question “Arson or Accident?”

546

 

Case Study 2: Counterfeiting and Fraud: A Forensic Computer Investigation

548

Chapter 18

Forensic Science and the Internet

550

 

What is the Internet?

552

 

Where to Go on the Internet

555

 

Exploring Forensic Science on the World Wide Web

561

 

Websites You may Wish to Explore

563

 

Forensic Analysis of Internet Data

564

 

Forensic Investigation of Internet Communications

566

 

Hacking

569

 

Chapter Summary

570

 

Review Questions

571

 

Further References

571

Chapter 19

The Future

572

 

Case Readings

581